A rain dance won’t make water fall from the sky. Casting a spell won’t cure cancer. Tarot cards can’t really reveal the future. Yet rituals like these have persisted for thousands of years. In fact, ritual is just as common today as it was in the distant past. Even in the most secular societies, ritualization is everywhere: from military parades to gang initiations, and from knocking on wood to raising glasses for a toast.
When ethnographers ask people why they perform these ceremonies, the most common answer is some version of the following: “It’s just what we do. It is our tradition. It’s who we are.” Anthropologists who study rituals have found that these traditions survive because they fulfill primordial, deep-seated human needs and serve important functions for individuals as well as for society. So what are some of these functions?