Essay / Borderlands

What the Discovery of Denisovan Remains in Laos Means

The new excavation of a fossil tooth places an enigmatic group of ancient humans in Southeast Asia more than 130,000 years ago.
The image features the opening of a gray rock cave surrounded by jagged overhangs.

The Tam Ngu Hao 2 Cave in Laos held Denisovan remains—the first ever found in Southeast Asia, showing the expansive geographical reach of this hominin species.

Fabrice Demeter/University of Copenhagen/CNRS Paris

This article was originally published at The Conversation and has been republished under Creative Commons.

What do a finger bone and some teeth found in the frigid Denisova Cave in Siberia’s Altai Mountains have in common with fossils from the balmy hills of tropical northern Laos?

Not much, until now: In a Laotian cave, an international team of researchers, including ourselves, has discovered a tooth belonging to an ancient human previously only known from icy northern latitudes—a Denisovan.

The find shows these long-lost relatives of Homo sapiens inhabited a wider area and range of environments than we previously knew, confirming hints found in the DNA of modern human populations from Southeast Asia and Australasia.


Little is known about these distant cousins of modern humans except that they once lived in Asia, were related to and interacted with the better-known Neanderthals, and are now extinct.

The first traces of Denisovans were only found in 2010, with the discovery of an innocuous finger bone in remote Denisova Cave. The extreme cold of the cave meant some ancient DNA was preserved in the bone—and the DNA revealed the finger had belonged to an unknown species of human.

This discovery changed the course of human evolutionary studies, and the newly discovered humans were named Denisovans after the cave where the fossil was found.

The photo shows a green landscape as seen from inside a cave, with a wooden structure built against the right side of the opening.

The first traces of Denisovans were found at Denisova Cave in Siberia in 2010.

Mike Morley/Flinders University

Fossilized teeth from Denisovans were later discovered in the same cave. Two upper and one lower molar were found in sediments that were dated to between 195,000 and 52,000 years ago.

Meanwhile, it was found that genes from Denisovans survived in modern-day people from Southeast Asia and Australasia. This implied that the Denisovans had dispersed over a far larger area than anticipated.


The hunt was on to find more evidence of these humans outside Russia, but scientists had no idea what they actually looked like. For the first time in history, we knew more about a human’s DNA than their anatomy!

The next twist came when a 160,000-year-old Denisovan jawbone surfaced on the Tibetan Plateau, giving the scientific community a tantalizing glimpse of what the bodies of these ancient humans were like and where they lived.

But questions remained: Just how far did they spread in Asia, and how did their genetic imprint survive in Southeast Asians and Australasians?

Clearly Denisovans could live in the cold environments of Siberia and Tibet, but could they have also occupied a completely different ecological niche and adapted to a tropical climate?


Enter a new cave found by an international (Laos, French, American, Australian) team in northern Laos in 2018, close to the famous Tam Pa Ling Cave where 70,000-year-old modern human fossils were found.

The site, named Tam Ngu Hao 2 (or Cobra Cave), was found high up in the limestone mountains and contained remnants of old cave sediment packed with fossils.

Check out our related podcast episode: “Where Have All the Denisovans Gone?

The cave sediments contained teeth from giant herbivores, such as ancient elephants and rhinos that liked to live in woodland environments. The teeth were likely washed into the cave during a flooding event that deposited the sediments and fossils.

These sediments were covered by a layer of very hard rock called flowstone, which is formed by water flowing over the cave floor. The sediments and fossils were dated by this study to provide an age for the time of deposition in the cave, and by association, a minimum age for the death of the animals.


A human tooth (a lower permanent molar) was found in the cave sediments, but we could not initially identify what species of human it came from. The humid conditions in Laos meant that the ancient DNA was not preserved.

We did however find ancient proteins that suggested the tooth came from a young, likely female, human—probably between 3.5 and 8.5 years old.

After very detailed analysis of the shape of this tooth, our team identified many similarities to the Denisovan teeth found on the Tibetan Plateau. This suggested the tooth’s owner was most likely a Denisovan who lived between 164,000 and 131,000 years ago in the warm tropics.


This fossil represents the first discovery of Denisovans in Southeast Asia and shows that Denisovans were at least as far south as Laos. This is in agreement with the genetic evidence found in modern-day Southeast Asian populations.

They may have been just at home in the balmy tropical climates of Laos as the icy conditions of Northern Europe and the high-altitude environments of the Tibetan Plateau. This suggests the Denisovans were very good at adapting to diverse environments.

It would seem that Southeast Asia was a hotspot of diversity for humans. At least five different species set up camp there at different times: Homo erectus, the Denisovans/Neanderthals, Homo floresiensisHomo luzonensis, and H. sapiens.

How many of these species overlapped and interacted? Another fossil discovered in the dense network of Southeast Asian caves could provide the next clue to understanding these complex relationships.

A middle aged woman with brown hair smiles into the camera.

Kira Westaway is an associate professor at Macquarie University in Australia. She reconstructs and dates early human evidence at archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. As part of an international research team, Westaway established the age for the “Hobbit” site at Liang Bua Cave, Western Flores, Indonesia, and other sites in Southeast Asia. She is searching for an extinct ape called Gigantopithecus blacki in southern China, who could turn out to be the real King Kong.

A middle aged man with darker hair and beard smiles into the camera.

Mike W. Morley is an associate professor at Flinders University in Australia. As a geoarchaeologist, his primary area of expertise is the study of archaeological site formation processes and the reconstruction of paleoenvironments. He is interested in reconstructing changes in geomorphological systems, such as river behavioral change, and the implications of these dynamics on humans living in—and interacting with—these landscapes. Morley has worked in Europe, North Africa (Sudan, Libya), Southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho), the Middle East (Oman, Bahrain, UAE, Saudi Arabia), and Southeast Asia (Malaysian Borneo, Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar).

A young white man with reddish hair and beard smiles slightly into the camera.

Renaud Joannes-Boyau is an associate professor at Southern Cross University in Australia. He is a geochronologist and a geochemist, and heads the Geoarchaeology and Archaeometry Research Group at Southern Cross University. His research focuses on the development and application of direct dating methods and micro-analytical techniques to key questions in the archaeological sciences, such as the timing of human evolution, hominid ecological niche, diet, and early life history. Joannes-Boyau has dated key fossils, including early Homo sapiens from Jebel Irhoud, and created geochemical imaging of Neanderthals breastfeeding and other early life reconstructions of hominins.


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